What Causes Your Eardrum to Rupture?

Ruptured eardrum. Anatomy of the humans eardrum. Healthy and perforated tympanic membrane. illustration for medical, science, and educational use

The human ear is a remarkable organ that enables us to perceive sounds and maintain our sense of balance. One critical component of the ear is the eardrum, also known as the tympanic membrane. This thin, delicate membrane plays a vital role in our ability to hear, as it vibrates in response to sound waves and transmits those vibrations to the inner ear. However, the eardrum is susceptible to damage, and one of the most concerning injuries it can sustain is a rupture. In this blog, we will define eardrum rupture and delve into some of the most common causes of this distressing condition.

Understanding Eardrum Rupture

Eardrum rupture, medically known as a perforated eardrum or tympanic membrane perforation, occurs when the thin membrane that separates the ear canal from the middle ear is torn or punctured. This damage can lead to various consequences, including hearing loss, ear infections, and even balance issues. Understanding the common causes of eardrum ruptures can help us take preventive measures and seek appropriate medical attention when necessary.

Common Causes of Eardrum Rupture


Traumatic injuries to the ear are one of the leading causes of eardrum ruptures. These injuries can result from various incidents, such as:

  • Direct blows to the ear: Physical trauma to the ear, whether from a punch, slap, or an object striking the ear, can cause a rupture.
  • Barotrauma: Sudden changes in air pressure, like those experienced during scuba diving, can create a pressure imbalance between the middle ear and the external environment. This pressure difference can lead to a ruptured eardrum.

Ear Infections: 

Ear infections, particularly middle ear infections (otitis media), can cause an accumulation of fluid and pressure in the middle ear. If the pressure becomes too great, it can force the eardrum to rupture. This is often accompanied by pain, fever, and hearing loss.

Inserting Objects into the Ear: 

Inserting objects like cotton swabs, hairpins, or other items into the ear canal can inadvertently damage the eardrum. It’s essential to resist the urge to clean your ears with objects, as this can lead to severe consequences.

Loud Noises: 

Exposure to extremely loud noises, such as explosions or loud music, can cause a sudden and severe increase in air pressure in the ear, leading to a rupture.

Infections or Allergies: 

Severe infections or allergic reactions that cause persistent sneezing or coughing can exert pressure on the eardrum, potentially causing it to rupture.

Foreign Objects: 

Occasionally, small foreign objects like insects or small particles can find their way into the ear canal, causing discomfort and potential damage to the eardrum if not removed carefully.

Medically-Induced Ruptures: 

In some cases, a healthcare provider may intentionally perforate the eardrum as part of a medical procedure, such as ear tube placement (tympanostomy), to alleviate middle ear infections or allow for better ventilation.


Eardrum rupture is a condition that can result from various causes, with each carrying its own set of symptoms and risks. While some cases of eardrum rupture may heal on their own, it is crucial to seek prompt medical attention when you suspect you have a perforated eardrum. Treatment may involve antibiotics, pain management, or, in severe cases, surgical repair. Preventing eardrum rupture by taking precautions, such as avoiding inserting objects into the ear and protecting your ears from loud noises, is essential for maintaining ear health and preserving your hearing. Always consult a healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis and treatment if you suspect a ruptured eardrum.

Lee A. Kleiman a doctor at Anne Arundel ENT

Dr. Lee A. Kleiman is a double board certified ENT & plastic surgeon at Anne Arundel ENT in Annapolis, Maryland known for his superior clinical outcomes in all Surgical and Non-Surgical ENT, specializing in Sinus Care, Voice and Swallowing, Rhinoplasty and Revision Rhinoplasty, and Facelifts and Non-surgical Aesthetic. He also continues to attend conferences internationally and nationally to keep abreast of the latest treatments and technology.