Head and Neck Disorders

The board-certified physicians of Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery are trained and experienced in the medical and surgical management of Head and Neck conditions including:

  • Thyroid disorders
  • Parathyroid disorders 
  • Salivary Gland disorders
  • Parotid tumors 
  • Head and Neck Cancers 
  • Facial Reconstruction post-trauma or post-tumor 
  • Moh’s Surgery Reconstruction.This is a special type of reconstructive plastic surgery that can be done after skin-cancer lesions are removed with Mohs surgery. This procedure is done to optimize the appearance of the skin after surgery by using a flap technique, grafting or tissue expansion.  

The ear, nose, and throat are separate structures that are closely connected to one another via tubes and passages in the head and neck. As such, there are some head and neck disorders that can produce symptoms affecting the ear, nose, and throat. ENT specialists receive specialized training that allows them to identify and treat disorders of the head and neck that are related to the ENT system.

Woman grabs her throat suffering from possible Head and Neck Disorders

Did You Know?

When you inhale, your nose helps to prepare the air for your throat and lungs by properly humidifying the air as it travels through the nasal passages. These passages are coated in mucous and the nose produces around 4 cups of mucous per day. While it may sound gross, mucus can actually protect you from germs, pollen, dirt, dust, and other inhaled pathogens. 

Thyroid Disorders

The thyroid gland is composed of two glands that sit on either side of the windpipe in the neck. It is responsible for the production of hormones that regulate metabolism, heart rate, and the gastrointestinal tract. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland is known for developing a range of problems such as: 

  • Thyroid Nodules: abnormal growths that occur as one or more lumps in the thyroid gland. Although most thyroid nodules are benign and do not cause symptoms, testing is still necessary to ensure there is no threat. 
  • Hyperthyroidism: occurs when the body produces too much thyroid hormone and can cause weight loss, rapid heart rate, and mood swings.
  • Hypothyroidism: occurs when the body does not produce enough thyroid hormone and can cause fatigue and decreased metabolism. 
  • Thyroid Cancer: can occur as different types including: papillary, follicular, medullary, and lymphoma. Thyroid cancer can cause pain and/or pressure in the neck, problems swallowing, and excessive coughing. 

Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery offers various minimally invasive thyroid procedures such as: 

  • Minimally Invasive Thyroidectomy (Removal of the entire thyroid)
  • Minimally Invasive Thyroid Lobectomy (Removal of half the thyroid)
  • Video-assisted Thyroidectomy
  • Endoscopic Transaxillary Thyroid Surgery
  • Mini-incision Thyroid Surgery

Parathyroid Disorders

The parathyroid glands are located just behind the thyroid gland. They are responsible for producing parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is used to regulate calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. When the balance of calcium and phosphorus is disrupted, it can cause: 

  • Hyperparathyroidism: when the body produces too much PTH
    • Primary hyperparathyroidism: overproduction of PTH is due to parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma. 
    • Secondary hyperparathyroidism: overproduction of PTH is caused by low calcium levels and high phosphorus levels, usually due to kidney failure. This can cause joint pain, loss of appetite, thirst, constipation, and depression. 
    • Persistent hyperparathyroidism: calcium levels never balance after treatment, meaning that constant treatment is needed. 
    • Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: the problem comes back six months after initial treatment, meaning that constant treatment is needed.  
  • Hypoparathyroidism: when the body does not produce enough PTH, causing low calcium and phosphorus levels. This can cause muscle cramps, pain, seizures, dry skin, walking difficulties, memory loss, and nervousness. 
Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery offers minimally invasive parathyroid surgery options to treat all parathyroid conditions.

Minimally Invasive parathyroid surgeries include:

Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

This procedure involves removing one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism.

Bilateral Neck Exploration for Hyperparathyroidism

Bilateral neck exploration for hyperparathyroidism is used to treat the most complex cases of hyperparathyroidism. In the procedure, all parathyroid organs are explored for potential disease and removed if necessary.

Endoscopic Parathyroidectomy

This procedure provides a magnified view of the parathyroid glands to ensure the surgery is performed safely.

Salivary Gland Disorders

Saliva plays an important role in swallowing, digestion, and maintaining your oral health. There are three salivary glands that produce saliva: the submandibular, sublingual, and parotid. The parotid gland alone supplies approximately 25% of the mouth’s saliva. Unfortunately, the parotid gland is also more likely to become blocked due to salivary gland disorders such as: 

  • Sialadentitis: An infection of the gland
  • Viral infections: The salivary glands are likely to swell when the body is compromised by the mumps, the flu, or other viral infections
  • Sialadenosis: The enlargement of the parotid gland without a known cause
  • Sialolithiasis: The formation of a calcified stone within the gland (similar to the development of a kidney stone)
  • A cyst: A benign, fluid-filled sac
  • Sjögren’s syndrome: A chronic, autoimmune disease that leads the white blood cells to attack the body’s salivary glands in addition to other moisture-producing glands in the body

Parotid Tumors

The parotid gland is also the most likely salivary gland to develop a tumor. Most parotid tumors are benign, however some can be cancerous. For this reason, a thorough examination, biopsy, and diagnostic imaging is recommended to determine whether the tumor is benign or malignant. 

Parotid Surgery

Surgery on the parotid gland is sometimes necessary to treat salivary gland disorders and/or parotid gland tumors. Additionally, lymphatic tissues within the neck may also need to be removed in the case that cancer from the parotid gland has spread to the lymph nodes. There are two primary types of parotid surgical techniques that may be used: 

  • Superficial Parotidectomy: a small incision is made in the side of the face to access the parotid gland and the superficial lobe of the parotid gland will be removed. 
  • Total Parotidectomy: a small incision is made in the side of the face to access and remove both the superficial and deep lobes of the parotid gland. 

Head & Neck Cancer

The majority of head and neck cancers generally start in the squamous cells of the mucosal tissues, such as the inside of the mouth or throat, but they can also start in the salivary glands, sinuses, muscles, or nerves in the head and neck. There are different types of head and neck cancers, including: 

  • Laryngeal & hypopharyngeal cancer
  • Nasal cavity cancer
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer
  • Oral Cancer
  • Oropharyngeal cancer
  • Paranasal sinus cancer
  • Salivary gland cancer
smiling Young female patient sitting in the room

Find Relief At Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery

Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery offers a variety of treatment options for head & neck issues, as well as treatments for infections and tumors affecting the same regions. However, the exact treatment will depend on a number of factors, so it is best to call and schedule a consultation to talk more about your individual case. 

women working at office suffering from headache

The board-certified physicians of Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery are trained and experienced in the medical and surgical management of Head and Neck conditions including:

  • Thyroid disorders
  • Parathyroid disorders 
  • Salivary Gland disorders
  • Parotid tumors 
  • Head and Neck Cancers 
  • Facial Reconstruction post-trauma or post-tumor 
  • Moh’s Surgery Reconstruction.This is a special type of reconstructive plastic surgery that can be done after skin-cancer lesions are removed with Mohs surgery. This procedure is done to optimize the appearance of the skin after surgery by using a flap technique, grafting or tissue expansion.  

The ear, nose, and throat are separate structures that are closely connected to one another via tubes and passages in the head and neck. As such, there are some head and neck disorders that can produce symptoms affecting the ear, nose, and throat. ENT specialists receive specialized training that allows them to identify and treat disorders of the head and neck that are related to the ENT system.

Woman grabs her throat suffering from possible Head and Neck Disorders

Did You Know?

When you inhale, your nose helps to prepare the air for your throat and lungs by properly humidifying the air as it travels through the nasal passages. These passages are coated in mucous and the nose produces around 4 cups of mucous per day. While it may sound gross, mucus can actually protect you from germs, pollen, dirt, dust, and other inhaled pathogens. 

Thyroid Disorders

The thyroid gland is composed of two glands that sit on either side of the windpipe in the neck. It is responsible for the production of hormones that regulate metabolism, heart rate, and the gastrointestinal tract. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland is known for developing a range of problems such as: 

  • Thyroid Nodules: abnormal growths that occur as one or more lumps in the thyroid gland. Although most thyroid nodules are benign and do not cause symptoms, testing is still necessary to ensure there is no threat. 
  • Hyperthyroidism: occurs when the body produces too much thyroid hormone and can cause weight loss, rapid heart rate, and mood swings.
  • Hypothyroidism: occurs when the body does not produce enough thyroid hormone and can cause fatigue and decreased metabolism. 
  • Thyroid Cancer: can occur as different types including: papillary, follicular, medullary, and lymphoma. Thyroid cancer can cause pain and/or pressure in the neck, problems swallowing, and excessive coughing. 

Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery offers various minimally invasive thyroid procedures such as: 

  • Minimally Invasive Thyroidectomy (Removal of the entire thyroid)
  • Minimally Invasive Thyroid Lobectomy (Removal of half the thyroid)
  • Video-assisted Thyroidectomy
  • Endoscopic Transaxillary Thyroid Surgery
  • Mini-incision Thyroid Surgery

Parathyroid Disorders

The parathyroid glands are located just behind the thyroid gland. They are responsible for producing parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is used to regulate calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. When the balance of calcium and phosphorus is disrupted, it can cause: 

  • Hyperparathyroidism: when the body produces too much PTH
    • Primary hyperparathyroidism: overproduction of PTH is due to parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma. 
    • Secondary hyperparathyroidism: overproduction of PTH is caused by low calcium levels and high phosphorus levels, usually due to kidney failure. This can cause joint pain, loss of appetite, thirst, constipation, and depression. 
    • Persistent hyperparathyroidism: calcium levels never balance after treatment, meaning that constant treatment is needed. 
    • Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: the problem comes back six months after initial treatment, meaning that constant treatment is needed.  
  • Hypoparathyroidism: when the body does not produce enough PTH, causing low calcium and phosphorus levels. This can cause muscle cramps, pain, seizures, dry skin, walking difficulties, memory loss, and nervousness. 
Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery offers minimally invasive parathyroid surgery options to treat all parathyroid conditions.

Minimally Invasive parathyroid surgeries include:

Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

This procedure involves removing one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism.

Bilateral Neck Exploration for Hyperparathyroidism

Bilateral neck exploration for hyperparathyroidism is used to treat the most complex cases of hyperparathyroidism. In the procedure, all parathyroid organs are explored for potential disease and removed if necessary.

Endoscopic Parathyroidectomy

This procedure provides a magnified view of the parathyroid glands to ensure the surgery is performed safely.

Salivary Gland Disorders

Saliva plays an important role in swallowing, digestion, and maintaining your oral health. There are three salivary glands that produce saliva: the submandibular, sublingual, and parotid. The parotid gland alone supplies approximately 25% of the mouth’s saliva. Unfortunately, the parotid gland is also more likely to become blocked due to salivary gland disorders such as: 

  • Sialadentitis: An infection of the gland
  • Viral infections: The salivary glands are likely to swell when the body is compromised by the mumps, the flu, or other viral infections
  • Sialadenosis: The enlargement of the parotid gland without a known cause
  • Sialolithiasis: The formation of a calcified stone within the gland (similar to the development of a kidney stone)
  • A cyst: A benign, fluid-filled sac
  • Sjögren’s syndrome: A chronic, autoimmune disease that leads the white blood cells to attack the body’s salivary glands in addition to other moisture-producing glands in the body

Parotid Tumors

The parotid gland is also the most likely salivary gland to develop a tumor. Most parotid tumors are benign, however some can be cancerous. For this reason, a thorough examination, biopsy, and diagnostic imaging is recommended to determine whether the tumor is benign or malignant. 

Parotid Surgery

Surgery on the parotid gland is sometimes necessary to treat salivary gland disorders and/or parotid gland tumors. Additionally, lymphatic tissues within the neck may also need to be removed in the case that cancer from the parotid gland has spread to the lymph nodes. There are two primary types of parotid surgical techniques that may be used: 

  • Superficial Parotidectomy: a small incision is made in the side of the face to access the parotid gland and the superficial lobe of the parotid gland will be removed. 
  • Total Parotidectomy: a small incision is made in the side of the face to access and remove both the superficial and deep lobes of the parotid gland. 

Head & Neck Cancer

The majority of head and neck cancers generally start in the squamous cells of the mucosal tissues, such as the inside of the mouth or throat, but they can also start in the salivary glands, sinuses, muscles, or nerves in the head and neck. There are different types of head and neck cancers, including: 

  • Laryngeal & hypopharyngeal cancer
  • Nasal cavity cancer
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer
  • Oral Cancer
  • Oropharyngeal cancer
  • Paranasal sinus cancer
  • Salivary gland cancer
smiling Young female patient sitting in the room

Find Relief At Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery

Anne Arundel ENT & Facial Plastic Surgery offers a variety of treatment options for head & neck issues, as well as treatments for infections and tumors affecting the same regions. However, the exact treatment will depend on a number of factors, so it is best to call and schedule a consultation to talk more about your individual case. 

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